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Offshore Wildlife Surveys and Data Visualization
Who we are

Normandeau Associates, Inc., a highly regarded U.S. environmental consultancy, and APEM, Inc., the U.S. subsidiary of the global leader in digital aerial surveys of offshore wildlife, have teamed up to offer ultra-high resolution aerial wildlife surveys for the successful permitting of offshore wind farms in the U.S.


The Normandeau‐APEM team combines extensive knowledge of innovative technology and methods with scientific integrity and regulatory experience. Together we are providing a new standard for gathering offshore wildlife data in North America based on established European methodology.

Our approach is to work with you to design a cost-effective solution based on the unique needs of your project. The process begins with clearly defined scientific-study designs created by the Normandeau‐APEM team. We offer flexible equipment and aircraft options to meet project-specific requirements. We also provide expert scientific identification of the wildlife within images.

APEM's custom camera system is the highest resolution in use for digital offshore wildlife surveys anywhere in the world. Normandeau developed ReMOTe (an online data portal) for large data storage, efficient data processing and analysis, and visualization.

Solid, reliable results to inform your decisions

The superior data quality, lower cost, and increased safety of ultra-high resolution aerial imaging has replaced vessel-based observation as the predominant wildlife survey tool for offshore wind ecological studies in Europe and beyond.

Normandeau–through a pilot study for BOEM–has developed new tools and protocols for adapting this methodology to North America. Combined with APEM's leadership in ultra-high resolution aerial digital wildlife imaging surveys in the UK and Europe, our team produces an unrivaled capacity to provide bird, marine mammal, and sea turtle studies for coastal and offshore projects in North America.

The advantages of ultra-high resolution aerial digital imaging include:

Safer than low-altitude conventional survey flights

Less expensive per square kilometer than vessel-based surveys

High altitude flight (over 400 m) eliminates wildlife disturbance

Increased capability to identify animals

More precise animal density estimates, making it easier to detect changes

Produces a permanent data archive

Eliminates observer swamping effects, and other biases are reduced

Custom camera system is the world's highest resolution for offshore wildlife surveys

Postconstruction surveys (above the rotor swept zone) are possible

Ultra-high resolution imagery that can be fully integrated into all GIS systems

Permanent electronic record that can be revisited and cross-referenced

Expert quality control of processing and quality assurance of data analysis



The Normandeau‐APEM team can undertake specific parts of an environmental project or handle the entire work package from beginning to end. Your project will have access to top scientific specialists, making the Normandeau-APEM team the obvious choice for a host of existing and new scientific studies.

The Normandeau-APEM team is executing the world's largest ever digital offshore wildlife surveys for BOEM and NYSERDA.


Dr Stuart Clough, President
(352) 559-9155

Julia Robinson Willmott, Senior Principal Scientist
Normandeau Associates, Inc.
(352) 327-3262

Representative Projects


Team Projects

Baseline surveys in the New York State Offshore Planning Area using aerial digital imagery, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority

Ecological baseline studies of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf, North Carolina and South Carolina, using aerial digital imagery, U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

New York Wind Energy Area monthly aerial surveys, Empire Wind, Equinor

Aerial survey of seabirds & marine mammals at Ka'ula Island, Hawaii, U.S. Department of Navy

Everglades mitigation bank monitoring and evaluation of habitats, Florida Power & Light


Over 1,600 ultra-high resolution digital wildlife surveys completed for major wind farm developers around the world including in the US, UK, Germany and Hawaii

Strong record of scientific research into the behavior of offshore wildlife at wind farms

Aerial wildlife surveys of East Anglia One offshore wind farm, the world's first offshore wind farm to be permitted using exclusively digital aerial wildlife surveys; Scottish Power Renewables/Vattenfall

Aerial wildlife surveys for BARD 1, Germany's most productive offshore wind farm

Aerial wildlife surveys of London Array offshore wind farm—until recently the largest offshore wind farm in the world; DONG, E.on, Masdar

Research project employing extremely high quality aerial surveys at a ground-breaking image resolution of 1 cm GSD to successfully survey estuary waterbirds; Natural England

Surveys of marine megafauna in the Irish Sea; Aberystwyth University and the Countryside Council for Wales

Normandeau Associates, Inc.

Pilot study of aerial high-definition surveys for seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf, U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

New Jersey offshore wind application for two offshore wind sites and environmental impact analysis of onshore and offshore biological resources, Bluewater Wind

Environmental assessment for commercial wind leasing and site assessment activities on the Atlantic OCS Offshore Massachusetts (subcontractor to URS), U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

Building a database to assess the relative vulnerability of migratory bird species to offshore renewable energy projects on the Atlantic OCS, U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

Acoustic monitoring of temporal and spatial abundance of birds near OCS structures, U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

Delaware offshore wind environmental services, stakeholder coordination, agency consultation, and application for meteorological tower, Bluewater Wind

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Normandeau Innovative Technology
for Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy Development
Data Visualization

Remote Marine and Onshore Technology (ReMOTe)

Spatial Collision and Electrocution Risk Assessment Modeling

Remote Sensing & Monitoring
ReBat® : Remote Bat Acoustic Technology

Bat acoustic monitoring is more than deploying a detector and collecting bat echolocation calls. The calls must also be stored, filtered, analyzed, and classified to provide information on the spatial and temporal activity patterns at the species level. The higher quality the data set, the more useful and reliable the pattern analysis results will be. The optimum data set is collected using a full-spectrum ultrasonic microphone and analyzed using the most reliable software available.

TIMRSM : Turbine Integrated Mortality Reduction

Normandeau's Smart Curtailment System significantly reduces bat fatalities and increases operating time for wind energy facilities. The TIMR smart curtailment system is the result of research conducted by Normandeau, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., and hosted by We Energies.

ATOM™ : Acoustic Thermographic Offshore Monitoring

ATOM was designed for offshore studies of birds and bats. It enables the species-level identification that is essential for species-specific regulatory drivers such as the Endangered Species Act and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. ATOM can be used for preconstruction studies and post-construction monitoring

ReCON™ : Remote Condor Observation Network

ReCON is a detection and alerting system for approaching condors (and other VHF-tagged wildlife). Through the USFWS condor recovery program, uniquely identifiable VHF tags are attached to individual condors. ReCON is designed to detect these VHF tags when they are within the detection grid and alert the energy facility with enough lead time to initiate a response, if needed.


Julia Robinson Willmott
Senior Principal Scientist
(352) 327-3262

Dr. Jeff Clerc
Senior Bat Ecologist
(352) 327-3269